The Medicare Drug Benefit Once Again
Over at Economist's View: Tim Duy Hears the Keening of the Inflation Hawks at the Fed

University Vacations Are Longer than They Used to Be

Academic summer vacations have sure grown since the old days:

Statutes of Gregory IX for the University of Paris 1231: We also forbid [imprisoning one] student for a debt contracted by another....

Neither the bishop nor his official, nor the chancellor shall exact a pecuniary penalty for removing an excommunication.... Nor shall the chancellor demand from the masters... any emolument... for granting a license [to teach]....

Also the vacation in summer is not to exceed one month, and the bachelors, if they wish, can continue their lectures in vacation time....

[W]e prohibit... students from carrying weapons in the city, and the university from protecting those who disturb peace and study. And those who call themselves students but do not frequent the schools, or acknowledge any master, are in no way to enjoy the liberties of the students.

Moreover, we order that the masters in arts shall always read one lecture on Priscian, and one book after the other in regular courses.... The masters and students in theology... shall not show themselves philosophers but strive to become God's learned. And they shall not speak in the language of the people, confounding the sacred language with the profane. In the schools they shall dispute only on such questions as can be determined by the theological books and the writings of the holy fathers.

It is not lawful for any whatever to infringe this deed of our provision, constitution, concession, prohibition and inhibition or to act contrary to it, from rash presumption. If anyone, however, should dare attempt this, let him know that he incurs the wrath of almighty God and of the blessed Peter and Paul, his apostles.

Given at the Lateran, on the Ides of April [April 13], in the fifth year of our pontificate [1231].