Lord Acton on America in 1866: Is This "Whig" Really a Liberal?
If Only Our Spacetime Was Five Dimensional, We Could Do Our IS-LM Diagrams Right...

"Liberals" for Their Day, Definitely Not for Ours...

Milton's freedom of religion does not include Roman Catholics:

Areopagitica: [I]f all cannot be of one mind--as who looks they should be?--this doubtless is more wholesome, more prudent, and more Christian: that many be tolerated, rather than all compelled. I mean not tolerated popery, and open superstition, which, as it extirpates all religions and civil supremacies, so itself should be extirpated, provided first that all charitable and compassionate means be used to win and regain the weak and the misled…

John Locke's "toleration" excludes a great many: Catholics, Muslims, atheists, and God alone knows who else:

John Locke: A Letter Concerning Toleration: What else do they mean who teach that faith is not to be kept with heretics? Their meaning, forsooth, is that the privilege of breaking faith belongs unto themselves; for they declare all that are not of their communion to be heretics, or at least may declare them so whensoever they think fit. What can be the meaning of their asserting that kings excommunicated forfeit their crowns and kingdoms? It is evident that they thereby arrogate unto themselves the power of deposing kings, because they challenge the power of excommunication, as the peculiar right of their hierarchy. That dominion is founded in grace is also an assertion by which those that maintain it do plainly lay claim to the possession of all things…. I say these have no right to be tolerated by the magistrate….

Again: That Church can have no right to be tolerated by the magistrate which is constituted upon such a bottom that all those who enter into it do thereby ipso facto deliver themselves up to the protection and service of another prince. For by this means the magistrate would give way to the settling of a foreign jurisdiction in his own country and suffer his own people to be listed, as it were, for soldiers against his own Government….

It is ridiculous for any one to profess himself to be a Mahometan only in his religion, but in everything else a faithful subject to a Christian magistrate, whilst at the same time he acknowledges himself bound to yield blind obedience to the Mufti of Constantinople, who himself is entirely obedient to the Ottoman Emperor and frames the feigned oracles of that religion according to his pleasure. But this Mahometan living amongst Christians would yet more apparently renounce their government if he acknowledged the same person to be head of his Church who is the supreme magistrate in the state.

Lastly, those are not at all to be tolerated who deny the being of a God. Promises, covenants, and oaths, which are the bonds of human society, can have no hold upon an atheist. The taking away of God, though but even in thought, dissolves all; besides also, those that by their atheism undermine and destroy all religion, can have no pretence of religion whereupon to challenge the privilege of a toleration…

Add them to Lord Acton's declaration that slavery was on balance a healthy influence in early nineteenth-century America:

The Southern slave owner… denied the absolute essential equality of all men in civil rights; and he denied the justice of the doctrine that the minority possesses nothing which is exempt from the control of the majority…. [T]he very defect of their social system preserved them from those political errors which were transforming the original characters of the Northern republics. The decomposition of democracy was arrested in the South by the indirect influence of slavery….

[O]ur verdict ought… to be that by one part of the nation [slavery] was wickedly defended, and by the other as wickedly removed…. When the Confederacy was established on the right of secession, the recognition of that right… [was] a distinct repudiation of the doctrine that the minority can enforce no rights…. It is like passing from the dominion of an able despot into a constitutional kingdom….

These were the political ideas of the Confederacy…. [H]istory can show no instance of so great an effort made by republicans to remedy the faults of that form of government…. The spurious liberty of the United States is twice cursed…. By exhibiting the spectacle of a people claiming to be free, but whose love of freedom means hatred of inequality, jealousy of limitations to power, and reliance on the state as an instrument to mould as well as to control society, it calls on its admirers to hate aristocracy and teaches its adversaries to fear the people. The North has used the doctrines of democracy to destroy self-government. The South applied the principle of conditional federation to cure the evils and to correct the errors of a false interpretation of democracy…

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