Western Front: Flanders: Intelligence officers of XV Corps, French Tenth Army, learn from PoWs that extensive German preparations near Zillebeke east of Ypres to employ ‘asphyxiating gases’ (ie chlorine cylinders). Champagne: Reims Cathedral under bombardment. Vosges: German counter-attack in Fecht valley reaches Herrenberg.
Southern Fronts: Serbia: Austrian river steamer Belgrad tries to break Allied Danube blockade (night 30/31), hits Russian mine and is sunk by Serb 75mm field guns.
Eastern Front: Austrian GHQ morale 'below zero. The Chief (Conrad) never stops grumbling'.
African Fronts: Southwest Africa: McKenzie’s South African Central Force (11,000 men) occupies Aus 80 miles inland from Lüderitz.
Home Fronts: Britain: King offers total alcohol abstinence in Royal Household for duration of war.
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