Lyndon Johnson said: "You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of a race and then say, 'You are free to compete with all the others,' and still justly believe that you have been completely fair. Thus it is not enough just to open the gates of opportunity. All our citizens must have the ability to walk through those gates.... It is not enough just to open the gates of opportunity. All our citizens must have the ability to walk through those gates.... Equal opportunity is essential, but not enough." However, one of our problems is that that does not seem to be working for even those African-Americans who can and do walk through all of our society's formal and status gates to opportunity: Khaing Zaw, Jhumpa Bhattacharya, Anne Price, Darrick Hamilton, and William Darity, Jr.: A College Degree and Marriage Fail to Yield Significant Wealth Gains for Black Women: "[In] the story of the American Dream... a college education is viewed as a key driver of upward mobility and the primary vehicle to eradicate racial differences...

...In reality... a college degree... does little to undo the massive differences in wealth across race.... Black women have far less wealth than white women regardless of level of education.... Single white women with a bachelor’s degree have seven times the wealth of their black counterparts, $35,000 and $5,000 in median wealth, respectively.

Marriage is another avenue that traditionally has been invoked as a means of increasing wealth for women. However... more and more people with higher incomes and college educations are choosing to marry one another.... Marriage does little to help equalize wealth.... Racial wealth disparities widen among married women with a bachelor’s degree, as married white women have more than five times the amount of wealth as their black counterparts...


#shouldread

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