Patrick Karl O’Brien: The Contributions of Warfare with Revolutionary and Napoleonic France to the Consolidation and Progress of the British Industrial Revolution: "A traditional and unresolved debate on economic connexions between the French and Industrial Revolutions.... The costs flowing from the reallocation of labour, capital and technical knowledge to wage warfare from 1793- 1815 have been overstated in relation to a range of benefits...

...crowding out a potential invasion by Napoleon’s armies; improvements to the skills and discipline of the workforce; the integration of Ireland into a national market; the accelerated diffusion of technologies associated with coal and iron; the circumvention of diminishing returns to agriculture and above all from a victory that provided the economy with a more efficient State, Navy and Merchant Marine that, for a century, retained most of the gains from trade and servicing the international economy obtained at the expense of rivals during these long wars with France. My conclusion is that the costs and benefits (derived from participation in a global war from 1793 to 1815, that was integral to the era’s geopolitical and mercantilist international economic order) cannot be measured. But in the context and history of that order it is difficult to represent their outcome as anything other than positive and significant for the consolidation and progress of Britain’s famous transition to become Europe’s First Industrial Nation...


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