This is absolutely brilliantly done, and striking in the size of the effect found!: Forced exile and migration producing a durable human-capital culture among ethnic Poles: Sascha O. Becker, Irena Grosfeld, Pauline Grosjean, Nico Voigtländer, Ekaterina Zhuravskaya: Forced Migration and Human Capital: Evidence from Post-WWII Population Transfers: "World War II, the Polish borders were redrawn... migration... from the Kresy territories in the East (taken over by the USSR) and were resettled mostly to the newly acquired Western Territories, from which Germans were expelled.... Poles with a family history of forced migration are significantly more educated today. Descendants of forced migrants have on average one extra year of schooling, driven by a higher propensity to finish secondary or higher education.... Since Kresy migrants were of the same ethnicity and religion as other Poles, we bypass confounding factors of other cases of forced migration.... Survey evidence suggests that forced migration led to a shift in preferences, away from material possessions and towards investment in a mobile asset–human capital. The effects persist over three generations...


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