Adrian: The 1600 Military Revolution and the Islamic World 'Since the turn of the millennium there has been a fast developing historical literature on this. Khan (2004) on Mughals; Agoston (2005) on Ottomans; and Streusand (2011) on both + Safavids. State of the art is the idea of a Eurasian rather than European gunpowder revolution. But there is still perhaps something different emerging in C17th century Europe. In 1500 the Ottomans are the cutting edge by 1700 they look old fashioned.

Scott P.: "Well, in 1500 the Spanish are the cutting edge by 1700 they look old-fashioned, too....

Gábor Ágoston (2005): Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire

Kenneth Chase (2003): Firearms: A Global History to 1700

Philip Hoffman (2015): Why Did Europe Conquer the World?

Douglas E. Streusand (2011): Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals

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