Gary Forsythe: A Critical History of Early Rome: "Perhaps the single most intriguing site of the late and final Bronze Age in Italy (c. thirteenth to eleventh centuries B.C.) is that of Frattesina located in the eastern part of the Po Valley. By prehistoric standards it was quite large, 700 by 190 yards, an area of 27.5 acres, and its remains show that it was an industrial community that refined metal, fashioned deer antler into tools, and produced colored glass beads, making it the earliest known site in Italy to manufacture glass. Ivory, amber, and fragments of ostrich eggs have been uncovered there as well.... The progressive and innovative character of Bronze-Age northern Italy is further demonstrated by the fact that during the thirteenth century B.C. the spring safety pin was invented, probably in the area between Lake Garda and the Austrian Alps. Termed a 'fibula' by modern archaeologists from its Latin name, the pin was henceforth used throughout antiquity to fasten at the shoulder or chest a garment wrapped about the body. Fibulae are therefore often found in graves, and the changing decorative style of their catch-plates provides archaeologists with valuable information for dating and concerning possible artistic influence...


#noted #2019-10-06

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