The German high command was seriously worried about the prospect of Romania entering the war, Hindenburg writing:
It is certain that so relatively small a state as Rumania had never before been given a role so important, and, indeed, so decisive for the history of the world at so favorable a moment. Never before had two great Powers like Germany and Austria found themselves so much at the mercy of the military resources of a country which had scarcely one twentieth of the population of the two great states. Judging by the military situation, it was to be expected that Rumania had only to advance where she wished to decide the world war in favor of those Powers which had been hurling themselves at us in vain for years. Thus everything seemed to depend on whether Rumania was ready to make any sort of use of her momentary advantage....
At exactly fifteen minutes past eight in the morning, on August 6, 1945, Japanese time, at the moment when the atomic bomb flashed above Hiroshima, Miss Toshiko Sasaki, a clerk in the personnel department of the East Asia Tin Works, had just sat down at her place in the plant office and was turning her head to speak to the girl at the next desk...
On the morning of August 28, the American war council decided to withdraw the last troops from their siege camps. Over the last few days, as some of their equipment was being withdrawn, the Americans had engaged the British with occasional rounds of cannon fire. General Pigot was also made aware of the American plans to withdraw on August 26 by deserters, so he was prepared to respond when they withdrew that night.
NEW YORK, Tuesday—I hope that both Russia and Marshal Tito are being fully informed of the reaction of the people in this country toward Yugoslavia's unwarranted and cruel attack upon American transport planes and toward Russia's backing up of the Yugoslav Government. To us, it seems a flimsy excuse to say that a number of planes, no matter how many, had flown over and taken pictures. It would be more than stupid to use transport planes for aerial photography. And if pictures were taken, what do either the Russians or the Yugoslavs think we would do with them that could be harmful to those countries?
Your very good letter came day before yesterday in the morning but I have been so hard pushed trying to raise this week's payroll that I couldn't write. I succeeded in doing it, although I hope I never have such another time doing it. The banker had broken the National Bank Act by paying me out last week and it looked as if he'd either have to bust it wide open or turn me down today.
By 1916, the Interior Department was responsible for 14 national parks and 21 national monuments but had no organization to manage them. Interior secretaries had asked the Army to detail troops to Yellowstone and the California parks for this purpose. There military engineers and cavalrymen developed park roads and buildings, enforced regulations against hunting, grazing, timber cutting, and vandalism, and did their best to serve the visiting public. Civilian appointees superintended the other parks, while the monuments received minimal custody.
NEW YORK, Thursday--None of us can help being worried and indignant over the shooting down of two of our unarmed transport planes which had wandered over the Yugoslav border. Conceding that there may be some hidden reason why our planes are forbidden to fly over a friendly country, it still seems a little difficult for the layman to understand.
Since d'Estaing's fleet outnumbered Howe's, the French admiral, fearful that Howe would be further reinforced and eventually gain a numerical advantage, reboarded the French troops, and sailed out to do battle with Howe on August 10. As the two fleets prepared to battle and maneuvered for position, the weather deteriorated, and a major storm broke out. Raging for two days, the storm scattered both fleets, severely damaging the French flagship. It also frustrated plans by Sullivan to attack Newport without French support on August 11.
George C. Marshall: [To Colonel Marshall S. Carter]:
August 21, 1946 Radio No. GOLD 1360. [Nanking, China]
Secret, Eyes Alone
Reference your WAR-97857.1 My view is as follows: situation critical in the extreme, small prospect for early termination of hostilities agreement—therefore likelihood great of spread of fighting into Jehol Province and Manchuria.
NEW YORK, Monday—I have had three letters about previous columns which require an explanation. Two of them dealt with a column in which I said that we sometimes let our prejudices prevent us from discovering our own artistic talent. I mentioned that it was extremely difficult for a Negro singer to get onto the operatic stage in this country. These remarks were made in connection with the debut in the opera house in Mexico City of one of our talented Negro women, Ella Belle Davis, who is now touring South America.
NEW YORK, Sunday—I think many people must feel as unhappy as I do over the fact that Jewish refugees on ships bound for Palestine are being taken to detention camps in Cyprus. Many of us will agree that resort to force by Jews in Palestine is deplorable, but I don't think it is hard to understand. Palestine does not belong to Britain, which governs it under a mandate. When people are desperate, I suppose that a show of force against them inevitably brings retaliation in kind.
The lesson of Jutland for Germany had been the vital need for reconnaissance so as to avoid the unexpected arrival of the British Grand Fleet during any raid, so on this occasion four Zeppelins were deployed to scout the North Sea between Scotland and Norway for signs of British ships, while four more scouted immediately ahead of German ships. Twenty-four submarines were also deployed; off the English coast, in the southern North Sea and off the Dogger Bank....
In 1915 Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent French speaker, was sent to Bucharest as British military attaché on Kitchener's initiative to bring Romania into the war. But when there he quickly formed the view that an unprepared and ill-armed Romania facing a war on three fronts against Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria would be a liability not an asset to the allies. This view was brushed aside by Whitehall, and he signed (with foreboding) a Military Convention with Romania on 13 August 1916. Thompson became head of the British Military Mission....
British Prime Minister Clement Attlee sent a three-member Cabinet Mission to India aimed at discussing and finalising plans for the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations. After holding talks with the representatives of the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League—the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India—on 16 May 1946, the Mission proposed initial plans of composition of the new Dominion of India and its government. On 16 June, under pressure from the Muslim League headed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Mission proposed an alternative plan to arrange for India to be divided into Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan. The princely states of India would be permitted to accede to either dominion or attain independence....
Agreement: On August 15, 1916, an agreement was entered into by the parties hereto, covering wages and working conditions in local fields of Southern Wyoming by and between representatives of the United Mine Workers of America, District No. 22, and the Southern Wyoming Wyoming Coal Operators, for a two year period beginning September 1, 1916 and ending August 31, 1918.
I wish to state that Democratic Hungary, which regards as its primary concern the good understanding and even the friendly co-operation with her neighbouring States looked most hopefully to Czechoslovakia. She saw her as the carrier of the noble ideas of Thomas Masaryk. Yet we were sadly disappointed when we discovered that, through no fault of ours, it became impossible to arrive at this good understanding. I therefore much regret that for this reason I must inform you of the difference which had appeared between Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
John Clute: Review of "The Shape of Things to Come":
The Shape of Things to Come is a badlands book. It is a land ironclad in words, a craft designed to carry its maker and its readers through the bad tough nurtureless years between the two World Wars intact, until a more verdant time is reached, on the other side of history, where we may all relax again. It is a guide for survival, a vade mecum, a mantra, a great fixed unshatterable shield glued together out of a mental gum that we might call word obdurate – until it all comes unglued, for one precious instant, right in the middle of the passage it is guiding us along, as we shall see.
I take the liberty of transmitting to Congress the Inclosed Letter, which I just now received from the pay Master General. They will perceive by it, that the Military Chest is entirely exhausted, and, that a third of the Army remains unpaid for the Months of April and May. The importance & necessity of an immediate and large supply will at once appear—and I am persuaded it will be ordered and forwarded with all possible expedition.
Since I had the honor of writing by Colo. Heth on Sunday last, I have not received any advices from Rhode Island.
I have the Honor to be with great respect & esteem sir
I had hoped for a letter today - but the mails are slow I guess. I signed about a hundred bills yesterday and more than that today. Vetoed some and have half dozen recommended for veto today on my desk now to read.
HYDE PARK, Tuesday—On the 7th of August four years ago, our marines landed on Guadalcanal. Some of the boys who made that historic landing have told me what those first few weeks were like. It was hard fighting, not only against the Japs but against disease and against propaganda from Japan which made them sometimes feel that they were an isolated dot in the Pacific.
HYDE PARK, Sunday—Some of the papers in the Maine area made a good deal of the fact that, on my trip up to Campobello Island, I could not stay overnight at a hotel in Portland because I had Fala with me. Since it was a hotel rule, the clerk was quite right to stick to it and I had no complaint. I did not know of the rule because I had never stayed in that hotel before, and I would not have telegraphed for rooms there if I had not forgotten the name of the hotel where I usually stay. I remembered this hotel because my son had stayed there when he made a speech in Portland last spring.
Another great fire happened on the 3d of August, 1778, on Cruger's Wharf, in which there were about fifty houses consumed. The cause of so many houses being burned at this time was, the military officers taking the ordering and directing of the fire from the firemen.
The citizens complained thereof to the Commander-in-Chief, who immediately gave out, in general orders, that, in future, no military man should interfere with any fire that may happen in the city, but leave the extinguishing thereof to the entire direction of the firemen and inhabitants. The military should place sentries over the goods that were saved from the fire.
Reference the Communist attack of 29 July on a Marine detachment or convoy near Peiping, the Navy Department has received the Marine report of the incident. Meanwhile at the personal request of Chou En-lai, as well as the Generalissimo, a fact finding team of selected individuals from Executive Headquarters has been sent out to make a report and to determine responsibility.
EN ROUTE TO CAMPOBELLO ISLAND, Tuesday JULY 31, 1946—I read with a great deal of interest an item which came from Mexico City not long ago. In their famed National Opera, Verdi's "Aida" was sung by an American soprano, Ellabelle Davis. She might have made her debut on the operatic stage in her own country, where she has made a name for herself on the concert stage, but racial prejudice is hard to overcome.
The committee to whom was referred the petition of Richard Marven and Samuel Shaw, brought in a report, which was taken into consideration;
Resolved, That it is the duty of all persons in the service of the United States, as well as all other the inhabitants thereof, to give the earliest information to Congress or other proper authority of any misconduct, frauds or misdemeanors committed by any offcers or persons in the service of these states, which may come to their knowledge.
The Black Tom explosion was the peak act of German sabotage on American soil during the First World War. On July 29, 1916, German agents set fire to a complex of warehouses and ships in the New York harbor that held munitions, fuel, and explosives bound to aid the Allies in their fight. Though America was technically a neutral nation at the time of the attack, general policies greatly favored the Allies. The attack persuaded many that the United States should join the Allies and intervene in the war in Europe.
On July 28, 1932, the U.S. Army 12th Infantry regiment commanded by Douglas MacArthur and the 3rd Calvary Regiment, supported by six battle tanks commanded by Major George Patton violently evicted the Bonus Army from their Washington, D.C. encampment. This violent action and horrible treatment of impoverished veterans shocked the American public and demonstrated the utter indifference of Herbert Hoover to the desperate poverty the nation faced, helping to seal his overwhelming defeat that fall that ushered in the widespread change of the New Deal that would follow.
WHEREAS it is essential that there be maintained in the armed services of the United States the highest standards of democracy, with equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country's defense:
NOW THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, by the Constitution and the statutes of the United States, and as Commander in Chief of the armed services, it is hereby ordered as follows:
NEW YORK, Thursday—Most of us listened to the radio with great interest yesterday when the under-water atom bomb was tried out in Bikini Lagoon. The damage seems to have been considerable, and I cannot help feeling a little sad at the sinking of the aircraft carrier Saratoga. Her fame will live in the annals of the Navy, and I suppose it is a perfectly good end for a valiant ship.
I had this Day the Pleasure of your Letter by Captain Barnes, of June 9. I did myself the Honour, when in Boston to call at your House, but was told you was ill and could not be seen, upon which I sent in my Name, as the Fashion is, intending to call at another opportunity, but was dissappointed.
The Battle of Pozières was a two-week struggle for the French village of Pozières and the ridge on which it stands, during the middle stages of the 1916 Battle of the Somme. Though British divisions were involved in most phases of the fighting, Pozières is primarily remembered as an Australian battle. The fighting ended with the Allied forces in possession of the plateau north and east of the village, in a position to menace the German bastion of Thiepval from the rear. The cost had been very large for both sides and in the words of Australian official historian Charles Bean, the Pozières ridge "is more densely sown with Australian sacrifice than any other place on earth"....
On July 22, 1946, a bomb demolished the southern wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem. This newsreel shows the aftermath of the explosion. “The hotel housed the British army headquarters, and the Palestine government offices, and casualties were very heavy,” the British reporter announces, as workers on-screen sift the rubble for bodies. “The tragic scene is like a serious incident during the Blitz.”
Inclosed I transmit your Excellency a letter from the Count Destain. He has had the River sounded and finds he cannot enter. He will sail for Rhode Island tomorrow evening; in the mean time he is making demonstrations to deceive the enemy and beget an opinion that he intends to operate in this quarter.
NEW YORK, Thursday—I was somewhat saddened this morning when I saw in the paper that Gen. Draja Mihailovich of Yugoslavia had been executed. The man next to me in the subway pointed it out to a friend and said, 'That's the Russian way of handling things. He wasn't a traitor to his country. He fought the Germans at the start, but he didn't agree to the kind of government the Yugoslavs now have, and that's what happens to the opposition.'
To The President
Honorable Harry S. Truman
Dear Mr. President:
I am now enclosing to you herewith clippings which I have taken out from the PM which tells how Southern policeman 'gouged out both eyes' of a returned Negro veteran. This was done by means of their clubs.
A considerable fleet of french men of war, chiefly ships of the line, has just arrived at Sandy Hook, under the command of Admiral Count D’Estaing. As the Admiral is a stranger, and is come for the purpose of co-operating with us against the Enemy, it is absolutely necessary that he should be attended by some Gentlemen of intelligence and who possess an accurate knowledge of the Coast and harbours. His Excellency General Washington is persuaded you answer this description in every part; and I am directed by him to request you in his name, if circumstances will permit, to go on board the Admiral as early as possible.
HYDE PARK, Sunday—I was particularly glad yesterday to learn of the forming of the new Council of American Business, Inc. This seems to be a group of progressive businessmen, from all over the United States, who want OPA controls primarily to prevent inflation. They seem to remember history, and in the letter which I received they quote facts going back to the period after World War I, when we tried combating inflationary pressures with a free price system.
On July 14, 1946, four African American sharecroppers were lynched at Moore’s Ford in northeast Georgia in an event now described as the ‘last mass lynching in America.’... The killers of George Dorsey, Mae Murray Dorsey, Roger Malcolm, and Dorothy Malcolm were never brought to justice.... A fight between Roger Malcolm and his wife Dorothy sparked the crisis that unfolded in mid-July in Walton County, just sixty miles outside of Atlanta. On July 14, Malcolm was arrested by local authorities after stabbing white overseer Barnette Hester who had intervened in the domestic conflict. Hester may have had a sexual relationship with Dorothy Malcolm.
HYDE PARK, Thursday—I have been asked by Americans United for World Organization to mention the fact that the Senate Foreign Relations Committee has appointed a subcommittee to consider the United States' acceptance of compulsory jurisdiction of the new International Court of Justice, which was created by the United Nations Assembly at their organization meeting in London last winter.